History of gold mining in Victoria

Victoria is a world-renowned gold province and our history is closely connected to gold mining.

Gold discovery at Ballarat in 1851 sparked Victoria's famous gold rush. An estimated 6000 diggers (miners) arrived each week seeking their fortune.

Ballarat was considered the world's richest alluvial goldfield during its peak between 1852 and 1853.

Our gold rush brought migrants from all over the world to Victoria. Over the space of one year, nearby Bendigo was transformed from a sheep station into a bustling town of 40,000 people.

Melbourne earned the nickname 'Marvellous Melbourne', drawing comparisons to Paris and London, due to the huge influx of wealth and migrants.

The economic and cultural impact of this mass migration shaped the future of Victoria.

Map of Victoria showing major gold mining regions. These regions include Ballarat, Bendigo, Castlemaine, Berlin, Bright, Chewton, and Wedderburn.

Over 150 years of gold discovery

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Victoria's first officially recognised gold discovery was in 1850 near Clunes, almost 40 kilometres north of Ballarat.

In 1851, the Victorian Government offered a reward of £200 to anyone finding gold within 200 miles (320 kilometres) of Melbourne. Within six months, gold was discovered in Clunes, and then Ballarat, Castlemaine and Bendigo.

The Victorian gold rush would dwarf finds in New South Wales, accounting for more than one third of the world’s gold production in the 1850s.

On 30 November 1854, miners from Ballarat, disgruntled with the colonial government's management of the goldfields, swore allegiance to the Southern Cross flag at Bakery Hill and built a stockade at the nearby Eureka diggings.

Early on the morning of Sunday 3 December, when the stockade was only lightly guarded, government troops attacked. At least 22 diggers, including one woman, and six soldiers were killed.

Eureka is a significant event in the development of Australia’s representational structures and attitudes towards democracy and egalitarianism.

In 1906, there was a brief rush to Tarnagulla in central Victoria following the discovery of the Poseidon Nuggets with the largest being 953 oz (27 kilograms).

By the 1920s, the Ballarat and Bendigo mines feel silent, and despite brief activity during the Great Depression, the gold mining industry lay dormant until the 1980s.

Higher gold prices at that time saw a surge in prospecting and fossicking – largely using electronic detectors - as well as the return of full-scale mining operations to Stawell and Woods Point.

In the 1990s, gold mining activity in Victoria escalated sharply, with new mines opening and a significant increase in the level of expenditure on exploration.

Information available through the Victorian Initiative for Minerals and Petroleum (VIMP) has acted as a catalyst for a rise in the number of applications for exploration licences in surveyed areas.

Gold production for the years 1999–2008 averaged over 4.6 tonnes per year with the biggest producers being Stawell, Fosterville, Tarnagulla, Bendigo and Costerfield.

Historical images

View historical images of the gold rush era in Victoria:

How much gold has Victoria produced?

Victoria has produced over 2400 tonnes of gold which is 32 per cent of all the gold mined in Australia and 2 per cent of all the gold ever mined in the world.

On a yield per area basis, Victoria has produced an average of 10.8 kilograms of gold per kilometre squared – which is greater than any other Australian state.

These figures stand comparison with any of the present-day mines operating anywhere in Australia.

More information

Browse these links for more information about the history of gold mining in Victoria:

Page last updated: 13 May 2019